- Behavioral endocrinology - the hormones and the hormonal mechanisms that mediate reproductive
behaviors, especially parental and alloparental (i. e., helping to care for non-descendant
- Physiological ecology - the effects of an animal's environment upon its physiology
and the subsequent effects upon initiation of reproductive behaviors and subsequent
measures of fitness.
- Stress biology - how the interactions between stress (e. g., corticosterone) and
reproductive (e. g., testosterone and estradiol) hormones mediate an animal's reproductive
effort. Also, whether developmental exposure to corticosterone results in long term
phenotypic effects (i.e., alters behavioral and physiologic responses).
- Nutritional endocrinology - variable resource availability (inter-year or across-habitat
effects) can play a role in the overall condition of an organism and this can subsequently
have long-term effects upon an animal's health-state and fitness.